Category: Automobiles

Car purchase and servicing platform BookMyTime has acqui-hired car management startup Servicemykar, according to a press statement. Raghavendra Chandrappa founded Servicemykar. The 10-member team of Servicemykar, as well as CEO Chandrappa, will become a part of BookMyTime. With this acquisition, we are ready to expand our operation in terms of service and geography,” said Raghuram Kote, founder of BookMyTime.

The BookMyTime app provides the user with price comparisons of cars and servicing requirements such as providing details of puncture shops and round-the-clock towing services. The company, which is currently present in Bangalore, claims to have partnered with more than 182 authorized dealers for servicing and 110 dealers for new cars. In the automobiles space, online classifieds firm Quikr has acquired Step, a platform that connects vehicle owners with service providers nearest to them, in September.


Before that, Girnar Software Pvt Ltd, which owns,, and, has acquired roadside assistance (RSA) provider help Wheels Pvt Ltd in an all-cash deal in April. The automobile marketplace and repair segment has seen a lot of investor interest recently. In September, Deepak Nathani, co-founder of technology consulting firm Cybage Software Pvt. Ltd acquired a 20% stake in automotive services startup Demyto for an undisclosed amount.

In May, Bengaluru-based Let’s Service raised angel funding from QuEST Global chief operating officer Ajay Prabhu and Julia Computing Inc. co-founder Deepak Vinci. The firm provides services for a bike- and scooter owners at authorized service centers. The same month also saw Mumbai-based MotoMojo secure angel funding from the founders of startup enabler VentesAvenues. The firm connects owners of two- and four-wheelers with service stations through its mobile app.


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NEW DELHI: The country’s top two carmakers Maruti Suzuki and Hyundai, said they sold over 45,000 units on Dhanteras. Maruti Suzuki India Ltd and Hyundai Motor India Ltd (HMIL) reported good sales on Dhanteras, considered auspicious for making new purchases. This Dhanteras, the customers have made heightened purchases with deliveries of 15,153 Hyundai cars, a growth of 26 percent over last year.


HMIL Senior Vice President Sales and Marketing Rakesh Srivastava told PTI. He further said: “We expect to have 50,000-plus deliveries for the full month, making this festival season the best in the last couple of years. Good monsoons, better consumer sentiments, and the 7th Pay Commission award have fuelled demand for automobiles. Stay updated on the go with the Times of India News App. Click here to download it for your device.


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Car purchase and servicing platform, BookMyTime, has acquired car management startup Service year. “With this acquisition, we are ready to expand our operations in terms of service and geography,” said Raghuram Kote, founder of BookMyTime. The BookMyTime app provides users with price comparisons of cars and servicing requirements, such as providing details of puncture shops and round-the-clock towing services. The company currently present in Bangalore claims to have partnered with more than 182 authorized dealers for servicing and 110 dealers for new cars.


In the automobile sector, online classifieds firm, Quikr has acquired Step, a platform that connects vehicle owners with service providers nearest to them during September this year. Before that, Girnar Software Pvt Ltd, which owns,, and, had acquired roadside assistance (RSA) provider, Help On Wheels Pvt Ltd in an all-cash deal in April this year. The automobile marketplace and repair segment has seen a lot of investor interest recently. Read more on Investments.

The growth of IT and other industries in India has greatly improved the standard of living of Indian citizens. Many people have now purchased cars or bikes (which have led to huge traffic snarls in all the cities in India) and can commute with ease. With a greater number of cars comes a greater need to service them. The BookMyTime app has made life easy for people by allowing them to make price comparisons of cars before purchasing, thereby ensuring cheap and efficient cars.

It is also easy for people to find a good car servicing agent to repair and clean their car at regular intervals. Maintenance of cars is essential to optimize their performance and also to make them appear clean and neat. People stuck on roads due to car – punctures or engine breakdowns can also help easily through BookMyTime’s mobile app. This startup is definitely a useful startup and a visionary one. The government of India should promote more startups like these. Read more on Startup News.


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While two-wheeler makers saw some growth in sales during October, many car makers did not report a blockbuster performance. In the two-wheeler segment, Hero MotoCorp continued selling six-lakh-plus units consecutively for the last three months. He recorded 6.63 lakh units in October, up to four percent against 6.40 lakh units in the corresponding month last year. ‘Pulsar’-maker Bajaj Auto sold 2.13 lakh motorcycles during the month, a five percent growth year-on-year compared to 2.02 lakh units in October 2015.

Tamil Nadu-based TVS Motor recorded double-digit growth by selling around 3.09 lakh units (12 percent up a year-on-year) in October compared with around 2.75 lakh units last year. India Yamaha Motor also recorded 22 percent growth at 86,428 units during the month, against 70,812 units in October last year.


Passenger vehicle

In the passenger vehicle segment, while companies such as Renault India, Volkswagen India, and Nissan India reported exponential growth (because of the low base), companies such as Ford India, Toyota Kirloskar Motor, and Honda Cars India reported a decline in sales year-on-year. Renault India sold 12,409 units during the month, up 68 percent, as against 7,396 units in October 2015. However, Ford India and Honda Cars India reported a more than 20 percent decline in sales year-on-year. “As we look for the industry momentum to sustain, Ford remains committed to its strategy of the product led innovation, a differentiated customer experience, and breaking the myth on our cost of ownership,” Anurag Mehrotra, Executive Director, Marketing, Sales & Service, Ford India, said.

M&M sales

However, home-grown Mahindra & Mahindra’s sales jumped three percent to 24,737 units last month compared to 24,060 units in October last year. “Some of our power brands such as the Bolero, Scorpio, TUV300, and the Pickups have performed well. We have expanded our electric vehicle portfolio (zero emissions) over the last month by adding the eSupro range and the e2oPlus. We hope to see the growth momentum continue for the remaining part of the year,” Pravin Shah, President and Chief Executive (Automotive), M&M, said. The commercial vehicle segment also showed mixed trends during the month.


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ALLAHABAD: The auspicious occasion of Dhanteras registered brisk sale in bullion and automobile sectors, with the sale of 1,675 automobiles, including 650 four-wheelers on a single day. In the bullion sector, the enthusiasm of people was up due to low gold prices and lucrative offers. The showrooms lined up vehicles from an entrance to a footpath, akin to that of utensils as the shops opened on Saturday. We had no option as customers had booked their two-wheelers in advance to pick it on Dhanteras all our godowns were full so the vehicles had to be parked on roads, claimed manager of a showroom.

He said that 45 motorcycles and 40 scooters were sold till late in the evening. Data collected from various showrooms shows that 1,675 vehicles will be on roads from Sunday. In the bullion market, silver coins and idols were purchased most followed by golden and diamond jewellery. The precious stone studded jewellery was also in demand.


The silver bullion market is expected to register a sale between Rs 30 crore and Rs 40 crores till late at night which is below expectations,” Prayag Sarafa Mandal president Kuldeep Soni said. He said people purchased silver Laxmi-Ganesh coins or silver products as the token purchase for Dhanteras. Gold was also sold in good quantity but it was the silver which was the common man’s first choice. “People also purchased certified jewellery from showrooms. Traditional jewellers have to sustain the loss this Diwali,” Soni added.


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Ontario, Nov1: BlackBerry Ltd has signed a deal to work directly with Ford Motor Co to expand the carmaker’s use of its QNX secure operating system, the Canadian technology company said on Monday, as Ford develops increasingly automated vehicles. The deal with Ford is the first BlackBerry has done directly with a major automaker, though it currently sells its technology to auto industry suppliers. The company is betting its future on expanding sales of software products, including automakers and other manufacturers, after largely ceding the smartphone market to rivals including Apple, Alphabet’s Google, and Samsung.


Panasonic Automotive currently uses QNX software in the Sync 3 infotainment console that it supplies to Ford.
BlackBerry is hoping the new deal will expand the use of BlackBerry’s software in Ford vehicles as the two companies identify other systems where it might be used. We can form the basis of the entire vehicle all the way from the autonomous drive through to infotainment,” John Wall, the head of BlackBerry’s QNX unit, said in a phone interview.
Ford is ramping up its driverless vehicle efforts and plans to offer a fully automated vehicle for commercial ride-sharing in 2021, it announced in August.

QNX’s software is certified for use in autonomous driving and active safety systems, according to Wall. In the initial engagements, you can think of an expansion into the cockpit; telematics, infotainment, cluster,” Wall said. BlackBerry and Ford declined to say how QNX might be rolled out into new systems or discuss the deal’s financial terms. A dedicated team of QNX engineers based in Ottawa and Waterloo will work with Ford to expand the carmaker’s use of the Neutrino industrial operating system, as well as an overarching program that can control other operating systems and related security technology, BlackBerry said.

We’re providing the plumbing for the vehicle that is both robust and safe and secure to allow the customers to build their applications on top of that,” Wall said. Dan Dodge founded QNX in 1982 and stayed on after BlackBerry bought the company in 2010, left QNX at the end of 2015. Bloomberg reported in July that Apple hired him as part of its own self-driving plans.


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A framework agreement offers the premise for the enterprise dating between a factory and a public business enterprise (Public). It consists of the phrases and requirements for a Public’s acquisition and possession of new car vehicle dealerships. Each factory has its own restrictions on a Public’s capacity to gather and perform its dealerships.

Most framework agreements are, via their own phrases, confidential. However, if one is waiting for promoting a dealership to a Public, it’d be sensible to become familiar with its framework agreement and how it would affect an ability sale.

When I began negotiating the sale of Lexus of Stevens Creek, a Public indicated it wanted to buy the dealership. However, it already owned four Lexus stores (the maximum allowed nationwide at the time). The Public instructed the factory it would sell one if it entered into a purchase-sell with my dealer; however, the manufacturing unit told them it had to sell one before putting a deal together.


The courting among Publics and factories has been a thrilling metamorphosis to look at. When Publics first got here on the scene, the factories kicked and screamed. Lawsuits had been filed, and the concept of public ownership of vehicle dealerships changed into vigorously adverse using the producers.

Later, the confrontational mindset subsided, and the factories embraced the Publics as a manner to update certain sellers and as a way to have new centers constructed. The glow got here off the relationships while some of the Publics did not perform the way the manufacturing facility wanted: terrible CSI, damaged guarantees, bad sales overall performance.

For the factories and the Public, the drafting of the authentic framework agreements changed into composing pre-nuptial agreements without being married or divorced. As the factories learned from revel in, the agreements had been massaged and changed.

Several years in the past, while supporting achieve the first manufacturing facility acclaim for an Indian Nation to emerge as a supplier, a common Sales and Service Agreement turned into now not ok to cover the distinctiveness of the tribes, and adjustments had to be made.

The factory knew a way to cope with massive dealership corporations, both public and private; however, how does one transact business with a Sovereign Nation (a Native American tribe) that has immunity from lawsuits and does no longer ought to pay taxes? Many problems had to be addressed (with the manufacturing facility, the state dealer affiliation, and the promoting dealer). In hindsight, much like the Publics’ framework agreements, many anticipated issues were imaginary, and some had been ignored.

Publics are rated daily in step with the marketplace price of their inventory, which cost, after they first commenced shopping for dealerships, became affected dramatically to increase the income extent of the organizations thru the acquisition of latest dealerships.

Dealers, alternatively, are rated via how matters flip out when the sport is over, and they promote their stores. Consequently, whilst it might be good for a Public to sell hypothetical dealership belongings to a REIT (Real Estate Investment Trust), it may or won’t be wise for a non-public supplier to sell that identical property although given the same phrases, or vice-versa.

Privates and Publics have different rules and specific reasons and, for my part, until currently, some Publics did not suppose they needed to act very just like dealers. However, with the sluggish-down of their acquisitions, Publics have had to act extra like dealers and get the most out of each saves. As maximum sellers would agree, the task of successfully operating a car dealership is appreciably extra hard than shopping for one with a person else’s money.

In the long run, I accept as true with framework agreements are suitable because they maintain the Publics from controlling too fantastic a percentage of the distribution channels of producers, even as simultaneously forcing them to perform extra like vehicle sellers.

Although framework agreements are redefined at instances, at one time or some other, the subsequent factories had the following requirements:


1. Had a restrict at the range of Toyota and Lexus dealerships that a Public may additionally personal: (a) on a countrywide degree; (b) in each Toyota-described geographic area or distributor region; and (c) in each Toyota or Lexus-defined metropolitan marketplace.
2. Prohibited ownership of contiguous dealerships within the equal market.
3. Nationally, the constraints on dealerships owned were for particular time periods and based totally on certain chances of overall Toyota unit sales in the United States.
4. In geographic regions or distributor areas, the constraints on dealerships owned by Publics have been unique by the relevant Toyota nearby obstacles policy or distributor’s coverage in effect at such time.
5. In metropolitan markets, the limitations on dealerships owned with the aid of Publics were primarily based on Toyota’s metro markets dilemma policy then in impact, which furnished a predicament primarily based on the entire variety of Toyota dealerships in the precise market.

With appreciation to Lexus, a Public should own no a couple of Lexus dealerships in any one Lexus-defined metropolitan marketplace and no more than 5 Lexus dealerships nationally.


1. Honda confined the wide variety of Honda and Acura dealerships a Public should own (a) on a countrywide degree; (b) in every Honda and Acura-described geographic area; and (c) in every Honda-described metropolitan market.
2. Nationally, the limitations on Honda dealerships owned by Publics have been based on specified percentages of overall Honda unit income within the United States.
3. In Honda-described geographic zones, the restrictions on Honda dealerships owned by Publics were primarily based on specific chances of general Honda unit income in every 10 Honda-defined geographic zones.
4. In Honda-described metropolitan markets, the restrictions on Honda dealerships owned by way of Publics have been specific numbers of dealerships in every market. Numerical limits varied based especially on the whole range of Honda dealerships in a selected marketplace.
5. Concerning Acura, Publics may want to very own no extra than (a) two Acura dealerships in a Honda-defined metropolitan marketplace, (b) 3 Acura dealerships in any one of six Honda-defined geographic zones, and (c) 5 Acura dealerships nationally.
6. Honda also prohibited ownership of contiguous dealerships.


Mercedes restricted any organization from owning Mercedes dealerships with sales of extra than 3% of the total income of Mercedes cars in the U.S. All through the preceding calendar 12 months.



1. 80% of the Public’s Ford dealerships needed to meet Ford’s performance standards.

2. Could now not make an acquisition that would result in owning Ford or Lincoln Mercury dealerships with sales exceeding five% of the full Ford or general Lincoln Mercury retail income of latest motors in the United States for the preceding calendar year.

3. Could no longer collect extra Ford or Lincoln Mercury dealerships in a specific state if such an acquisition could bring about the general public organization proudly owning Ford or Lincoln Mercury dealerships with income exceeding 5% of the full Ford or overall Lincoln Mercury retail income of recent automobiles in that state for the previous calendar yr.

4. Could no longer acquire additional Ford dealerships in a Ford-described market vicinity if such an acquisition brought about the Public owning multiple Ford dealership in a marketplace having a total of 3 or much fewer Ford dealerships or owning greater than 25% of the Ford dealerships in a marketplace having a complete of four or greater Ford dealerships. An identical marketplace location restriction applies for Lincoln-Mercury dealerships.
Five. The factory should impose conditions, consisting of requiring facilities upgrades on the obtained dealership.


General Motors constrained the maximum wide variety of General Motors dealerships that a Public could collect to 50% of the General Motors dealerships, through emblem line, in a General Motors-described geographic marketplace vicinity having a couple of General Motors dealers.


Subaru limited Publics to (a) no greater than Subaru dealerships inside sure distinctive market regions; (b) 4 Subaru dealerships within its Mid-America place; and (c) 12 dealerships inside Subaru’s complete location of the distribution.


BMW prohibited publicly held companies from owning BMW dealerships representing (a) greater than 10% of all BMW income inside the U.S. Or (b) extra than 50% of BMW dealerships in a given metropolitan marketplace. Other producers may additionally impose different restrictions and conditions, which may additionally or might not be extra stringent. As a circumstance to granting their consent to acquisitions, some of the producers required extra regulations or conditions, consisting of prohibiting:


1. Material changes in the Public or exceptional company transactions such as a merger, sale of a fabric amount of property or trade inside the Public’s board of administrators or control that might have a cloth destructive impact on the producer’s photograph or recognition or can be materially incompatible with the producer’s pastimes.

2. The elimination of a dealership standard manager without the consent of the manufacturer.

3. Dealing with every other logo without the manufacturing facility’s consent.

If a client can not follow the restrictions of its framework settlement with the manufacturing facility, it’ll not be accepted. Consequently, if one intends to sell a dealership to a Public, it’d be wise to know the necessities of its framework settlement earlier than investing a substantial quantity of time and electricity into negotiating with the Public.

Mr. Pico served as a courtroom appointed “Consultant to Debtor” in financial disaster instances, a “Court Appointed Mediator” in automotive disputes, the “Court Appointed Arbitrator / Appraiser” in partnership disputes, a “Court Approved Consultant to Receiver” in a check-kiting case, as a “Superior Court Mediator” in dealership/lender litigation and has been identified as an expert witness on both State and Federal tiers.

He has consulted on upside-down positions of over $50 Million, out of believing the role of over $4 Million and a financial institution overdraft of $30 Million. Since 1972, Mr. Pico has finished over 1,000 automobile dealership transactions, whose blended values exceed One Billion Dollars.

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There are several clean approaches to keep money with car insurance. Your modern-day coverage provider may also have pointed out some of the reductions that might advantage you. Still, it is up to you to be aware of your alternatives and ask what they have available and what you qualify for in the long run.

Insurance prices are primarily based on various factors, but the wide variety of ways you may lower your rates are also numerous. The packages are mentioned underneath. Be aware that not all insurers offer those discounts or rebates, and a few states’ legal guidelines prohibit them from being carried out. Everything is stated due to 2 major motives – expertise is electricity, and it doesn’t hurt to ask the coverage company.


Occupational Discount

Insurance corporations take note of which occupations tend to intend less riding and less threat-taking as this interprets into fewer accidents. If you’re in a single of these professions, you can revel in financial savings. Some of the qualifying occupations are law enforcement officials, firefighters, doctors, dentists, registered nurses, teachers, engineers, and scientists.

If you’re a contemporary or former member of the militia or are a university pupil taking element in a commissioning program along with ROTC, you are probably eligible for positive savings. For insurers that cater mainly to the army, there are additional elements that may additionally assist in decreasing rates together with your rank, whether or not or now not your car is parked in base storage and if your vehicle is saved in the course of deployment or whilst in any other case far from domestic.

Additionally, a few employee car coverage discounts stem from your insurer’s business relationships with other organizations. Being a worker of this kind of agency could translate into financial savings for you. Generally, it’s a terrific idea to test with all of the groups to that you belong and find out what discounts (if any) they’ve arranged and with what agencies.

Credit Score

Checked your credit score rating currently? The substantial majority of insurance agencies take credit scores under consideration nowadays, and an excessive one should assist cut your car premiums by way of as lots as half of; the particular ratings which trigger reductions are a carefully stored mystery; however, industry resources say that someone with a rating above seven hundred may be extra eligible for lower rates than someone with a score within the 500s.


Insurance carriers sometimes offer reductions due to their sponsorship relationships. The courting will be with a sorority or fraternity, a change affiliation, or a university, to name a few. Whether you are a student or alumni, you will be eligible for a discount.

Going Green

It is a commonplace nowadays for corporations to offer the option to go inexperienced by using opting to reduce paper statements. What might not be typically regarded is that your insurer may also reward you with a rebate to select this feature.


Most human beings realize that lowering the number of miles you force annually will bring about financial savings to your coverage bill. Some agencies also offer up to 10 percent discounts if you pass inexperienced by using riding a gasoline-efficient hybrid automobile. It’s no longer than the hybrid automobiles are safer, insurance professionals say; it’s that the individuals who exist in their way to shop for and drive them are seen as a higher chance.

Safety and Protection

You may additionally already realize that safety functions together with air baggage or anti-lock brakes can reduce your rates. But you won’t realize you could keep money on the comprehensive part of your insurance by installing anti-theft measures together with: automobile alarms; gas or ignition cutoff switches; stolen-automobile tracking structures which include LoJack; and VIN etchings, or engravings of your car identification range on your windshield and home windows.

Taking protecting using publications is another way to get a discount on your vehicle insurance charges. It can represent as a lot as ten percent off to your top class. Not handiest that, You won’t best turn out to be getting to know a few crucial defensives using strategies to maintain you and your passengers safe; however, you could additionally turn out to be saving yourself some money.

The Good Driver Discount is a well-known advantage available to the ones who’ve no transferring violations. The cut price may additionally take into consideration in which you live and wherein you park. Savings will be as tons as 20% if you qualify.

Planning Ahead

Planning when it is time to resume your policy can position cash in your pocket. Some coverage businesses give discounts of five-10% if you switch to them earlier than your next top rate is due. To take advantage of these early store-around savings, you have to begin searching at least weeks earlier than your modern-day vehicle policy is up. However, earlier than jumping, ask your modern provider if they may match the competitor’s early switcher cut price with a renewal cut price. Chances are they will consent in case you are a perfect patron with a terrific riding report if you want to keep you.



Some automobile coverage vendors reward loyalty. Nationwide gives customers who have been with the company at the least 5 years a 15 percent bargain, or five percent off if they were with them for 3 years.

Good Grades

If you match into the class your company defines as qualifying for the “excellent scholar cut-price,” you may keep money in your automobile insurance. In reality, agencies frequently offer reductions over ten percent. This is primarily based on the concept that true students are higher drivers. Generally, the bargain best applies to full-time students. The qualifications range; however, the cut-price typically applies to each excessive school and college student. Savings can be 10-25%.

Two’s Company

It won’t make sense to you. However, charges can drop when you get married, as coverage employer records show that drivers who’re coupled up tend to be safer than those who are footloose and fancy-unfastened. Some insurers can even expand the bargain to unmarried identical -intercourse couples.

Other unmarried couples would possibly ensure their motors together to obtain a multicar discount, which nearly all companies provide. Or, if the two of you personal assets collectively and have homeowners insurance, there’s usually a bundling discount to ensure your vehicle with the same enterprise.

Whether you’re married or unmarried, do some studies earlier than you renew an auto policy to ensure you are getting all of the discounts you can

Bundling Discount

If you buy multiple sorts of insurance from the same provider, you can regularly keep the money. For example – if you get your lifestyle coverage, vehicle insurance, and domestic-owners coverage from the equal agency, they will reduce each one in all of them. With most corporations, the extra types of coverage you bundle, the greater you save off the rate of buying all of them one after the other.

Payment Method Discount

A lot of coverage businesses offer a reduction in case your installation some shape of the computerized price. Most of these reductions are cumulative, so, in case you’ve were given a variety of them, you might certainly be capable of the store.

Multiple Automobile Discount

Much like bundling, insuring more than one automobile will qualify you for multiple car bargains. The make, version, and 12 months of the cars, the variety of vehicles, and other factors are considered, but the financial savings can be enormous.

Saving Money with Pay as You Drive Insurance

This new and more and more popular kind of coverage may be based on specific mileage amounts you and the insurer conforms to, the time you spend on your automobile, confirmed odometer readings, or set up generation, together with a GPS. Although sizeable financial savings may be realized with this form of coverage, it’s crucial to stay within the mileage constrictions agreed to with the insurance corporation. Violations may be high priced.



There are many opportunities for saving money with car insurance. Your coverage consultant may also factor some out to you, but it’ll be up to you to do your research and ask the questions in the long run.

When looking around for the most inexpensive insurance you could qualify for, do not lose sight of the massive photo. What I mean is an insurance issuer that offers many reductions can also still now not be cheaper than an employer that offers few reductions.

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This article is the first in a trilogy of articles regarding website online management.

Expertise of web site manipulation occasionally called “point protection,” is crucial with admire to the supplier’s supposed to use for the property and will become extremely crucial if a dealership proves no longer to be successful. [A “point” is a location where a manufacturer or distributor (hereinafter referred to jointly as “manufacturer” or “factory”) either has or wants a dealership.]

As explained underneath, there are numerous styles of site control. There is a difference, however, among web page manage because it applies to non-dealership real property and site control regarding new automobile dealerships. Because of the many forms and because of the difference with admire to vehicle dealerships, it would be incorrect to generalize that web page management consistent with se is both properly or terrible. Each case ought to be assessed personally.

A right of first refusal almost usually chills a land owner’s capacity to sell the real property. The theory is that a prospective third birthday celebration client would not be as easily inclined to spend the time, cash, and electricity required to compose a proposal for real estate, knowing the tenant has the right to just accept the provide and reap the advantage of the 1/3 birthday celebration’s research and bargaining while the optional physical activities his choice.

In the case of a sale of a vehicle dealership, that assertion is not often true.


While website manipulate had been around for decades, the surge in actual property fees within the Nineteen Seventies and Nineteen Eighties saw many metropolitan dealers promoting their centers for what regarded then to be astronomical sums. Properties that sellers purchased or built for some hundred thousand dollars in the 1940s, 50s, and 60s have been, through the overdue Nineteen Seventies, promoting for millions.

As real estate costs escalated, so did the fee of changing the facilities, and producers had been finding it difficult to achieve sellers to invest in lots of the one’s areas.

Consequently, by the mid-Eighties web page, manage started to appear for the first time in the Sales and Service Agreements of the factories.

For a short time lower back within the 1980s, there has been a war between dealers and Chrysler Realty Corporation (Realty) while Chrysler offered Realty to an unbiased, non-automobile business enterprise, ABKO.


The scenario inside the Eighties became an anomaly, and seeing that Chrysler repurchased Realty from ABKO, all the factory realty organizations have been owned by way of the factories, whose goal is to assist their dealers.

In the mid-Nineteen Eighties, when a few factories began to encompass rights of first refusal in their carrier and sales agreements, the general public concept the restrictions could have an effect on the income price of dealerships and their facilities by chilling prospects and diminishing gives.

By the Nineteen Nineties, each producer’s sales and carrier settlement contained a proper of the first refusal and, with the aid of the turn of the century, no one notion something approximately it.

By the yr 2000, sellers discovered that the manufacturer’s right of first refusal had certainly no impact on the income price of dealerships or their facilities.

Over the path of the beyond 20-years, we have never seen or heard of a case in which a dealership bought, and the dealer acquired much less blue sky due to web page manipulate, or the purchase fee of the ability changed into discounted due to website online manipulate.

Even in the few times that the factories have exercised their alternatives, we in no way heard of an instance in which there has been a “discounted fee” because of the proper of first refusal.

Generally, the factory physically games it proper and simply fingers the present contract to a dealer of its preference, and the new dealer can pay complete commercial retail for the commercial enterprise and actual estate.

Below is an instance of the wording in Mercedes-Benz USA’s Sales and Service Agreement:

1. Rights Granted

If a suggestion to sell Dealer’s fundamental belongings or switch the majority ownership hobby in Dealer is submitted by way of Dealer to MBUSA, or within the event of the death of most people Owner of Dealer, MBUSA has a right of first refusal or choice to purchase such belongings or ownership interest, such as any leasehold interest or realty. MBUSA’s exercising of its proper or choice beneath this Section IX.B supersedes Dealer’s proper to transfer its hobby in, or possession of, the dealership. MBUSA’s right or choice may be assigned with the aid of it to any 1/3 celebration, and MBUSA hereby guarantees the whole fee to Dealer of the acquisition charge by way of such assignee…. [Emphasis added.]

4. Option to Purchase

In the event of the demise of the majority Owner or if Dealer submits an offer which MBUSA determines isn’t bona fide or in precise faith, MBUSA has the option to purchase the major property of Dealer applied in Dealership Operations, together with real estate and leasehold interest, and to cancel this Agreement and the rights granted Dealer hereunder. The buy rate of the dealership assets could be determined with the aid of true faith negotiations among the events. [Emphasis added.]


Below is an instance of the wording in General Motors’ Sales and Service Agreement:

12.3 Right of First Refusal to Purchase
12.3.1 Creation and Coverage
If Dealer submits an offer for a change of ownership underneath Article 12.2, General Motors could have a right of first refusal to purchase the dealership property or inventory, and such other rights proposed to be transferred regardless of whether the proposed purchaser is qualified to be a dealer.

12.3.2 Purchase Price and Other Terms of Sale

(a) Bona Fide Agreement If Dealer has entered into a bona fide written buy/sell settlement, the purchase fee and other phrases of sale may be those set forth in such agreement and any associated documents unless Dealer and General Motors comply with other phrases…..

12.3.3 Consummation

Dealer agrees to switch the property via Warranty Deed, in which viable, conveying marketable title unfastened and clear of liens and encumbrances. The Warranty Deed might be in the right form for recording, and the Dealer will deliver entire possession of the property whilst the Deed is introduced. Dealer can even supply copies of any easements, licenses or different files affecting the belongings and assign any permits or licenses important for the conduct of Dealership Operations.

A number of factories even provides in their Sales and Service Agreements for compensation to the angling consumer if the manufacturing facility exercised its option. The following examples are from the Mercedes and Ford Sales and Service Agreements:

Mercedes-Benz USA’s Sales and Service Agreement

IX. B. Three. Right of First Refusal.

If due to MBUSA’s workout of its proper of first refusal, Dealer is contractually obligated to reimburse the preliminary customer for cheap legal professional’s charges, dealer’s charges, title searches, assets inspections, and other similar charges and prices that the customer incurred in reference to the buy/sell agreement, MBUSA shall reimburse Dealer for such charges and expenses in an quantity up to but not exceeding Fifty Thousand Dollars ($50,000.00). Dealer shall offer MBUSA with all documents substantiating such prices and prices as MBUSA may fairly request.

Ford Motor Company’s Sales and Service Agreement

24. (b) Company Right of First Refusal to Purchase.

(6) The Company agrees to pay the affordable fees, consisting of attorney’s prices which do now not exceed the usual, commonplace, and affordable fees charged for similar paintings executed for other customers, incurred by using the proposed new owners and transferee prior to the Company’s exercising of its Right of First Refusal in negotiating and imposing the contract for the proposed sale or transfer of the Dealer or Dealer’s assets.


Site control is whilst a dealer offers to a manufacturer, its actual property agency, or its finance company the right to determine the use of a dealership’s real belongings. In fashionable, web page manipulate way that at some point of the agreement, a provider’s hobby in the dealership facilities and actual belongings may additionally in no way be sold, leased, assigned, or weighted down in any way, with out the written consent of the manufacturing unit, or its representative, which consent must be obtained so as before the actual estate can be used for any motive, apart from as a brand new vehicle dealership, for the precise producer which has the control.


Usually the web page manipulate isn’t handiest for a particular time period, but it is able to also for a detailed rent, or logo car, or any aggregate of those gadgets. There are both blessings and disadvantages to a facility being weighted down with the aid of web site control. Site manage may additionally affect the cost of the dealership real assets in numerous approaches:

1. Loan Value. One may want to locate it more difficult to get a 2d mortgage if a belongings appreciates in fee and the lease is fixed at a sure charge for some of years.

The issue, if any, would rely on more than a few of factors. For example, the strength of the business being operated at the property could play a huge roll, as might the willingness of the entity possessing the site manage to conform to a trade in the hire.

Conversely, website manipulate will be a plus while financing a belongings. A provider can be able to qualify for a loan that would otherwise be impossible to obtain without web page manipulate. See: Beaudry Motor Company v ABKO; Chrysler Corporation and Chrysler Realty Corporation, 780 F.Second 751, four Fed.R.Serv.3d 142 (1986), where a provider couldn’t qualify for a loan without the gain of web page manipulate.

2. Lease price. If the provider terminates or is terminated, usually the manufacturing unit has a proper to lease the facility for a distinct time period and at a specified rent. In the Nineteen Eighties there have been more than one times where bancrupt sellers received offers from competing factories to buy the dealership facility. Had both supplier given the manufacturing facility website manage, the gives could not have been entertained as the centers have been in acceptable locations and General Motors would probably now not have consented to having their centers come to be dealerships for a competing brand. The mere reality such offers may be entertained, raised the value of the real belongings as it added in competitive bids, from strong shoppers.

On the other hand, if a supplier fails in his business, the manufacturing unit can (a) preserve to hire the belongings from him, consequently building fairness for the previous provider; (b) go back the web site manipulate to the dealer for him to do what he wants with the property; or (c) buy the assets from the provider. In many instances, in a chilly real property marketplace (along with the early Nineteen Eighties, the mid-1990s and the era after 2008), the manufacturing facility is the only legitimate purchaser for this type of unique use property. Through 2008, 2009 and 2010 there have been a glut of vacant dealerships for the duration of the United States.

Three. Resale price. Again, lower back in the 1980s, there have been instances in which dealers had purchase offers for the dealership real belongings from non-car buyers, however they have been precluded from accepting them due to the fact the factory had recorded factor protection.

Today, however, among the use boundaries imposed by both public and private entities restriction the usage of dealership facilities to new vehicle dealerships.

Use Limitations

Obviously, a single point dealer proceeding to dual with every other producer, would require the previous written consent of the manufacturer possessing the proper to web site manipulate. Additionally, a sequence dealer (owner of numerous brand dealerships) would require the manufacturer’s consent before rearranging nameplates and centers.

Two things that have appreciably changed the effects of website control in the 21st Century, but, are:

(a) City authorities and Auto Mall Association attitudes. In 2010, if a belongings is getting used for a new automobile dealership, it will in all likelihood stay a new vehicle dealership. Many dealerships have moved to “auto shops” where both city zoning ordinances, auto mall association by using-legal guidelines and CC&Rs (Covenants, Conditions and Restrictions) limit the homes from getting used as some thing other than a automobile dealership, although the factory does not have site manage.

See, as an example, the Elk Grove City Council Staff Report of August 26, 2009, prepared through Heather Ross, Senior Management Analyst, reporting that each the town and the car mall association restriction the use of dealership belongings.

Locally, the Automall lots are zoned AC (Auto Commercial) and might best be used for “motor car sales, leasing, repairing and servicing”. Other potential makes use of could require a zone change…. The contemporary restriction of uses is also unique within the Elk Grove Automall Design Guidelines, so a textual content modification of that record could also be required. There will also be restrictive covenants governing the makes use of of the automobile houses that the belongings proprietors could have to address.

In a few states, inclusive of Texas and Colorado, income tax from vehicle income is going primarily to the city wherein the BUYER is living. In others, like California, however, the income taxes pass typically to the city in which the auto DEALERSHIP resides.

On June 6, 1978 California citizens surpassed “Proposition 13” which limited the amount of property tax towns should price its citizens. The proposition changed into held constitutional by way of the USA Supreme Court inside the case of Nordlinger v Hahn, 505 U.S. 1 (1992) and because the mid 1990s California towns started feeling the monetary pinch from Prop 13’s obstacles on property taxes.

As a consequence, towns had been striving to restrict modern-day dealership residences for dealership use handiest because the monies collected from dealership sales taxes usually make car sellers the largest supply of profits for the city.

The Oakland Tribune said how the “consistent go with the flow of income” from new car dealerships “offers 50 percentage… Of the city’s sales tax revenue every 12 months, but metropolis officers are concerned approximately its future. The article goes on to quote the Burlingame City Manager as pointing out “My challenge is how to hold those (auto dealerships) possible long time…” More importantly, it relays the purpose of cities to restriction dealership belongings to dealership use. “Auto dealerships on California Drive sit down on prime actual property from Peninsula to Howard avenues. Auto dealerships have been the town’s savior when hotels faltered after Sept. 11, 2001, said Councilwoman Rosalie O’Mahony.” [Emphasis added.] “We truely want the auto sellers more than any enterprise within the complete town,” she stated. May 6, 2006.

See too: The Sacramento Business Journal, March 14, 2008, in which auto mall members have been towards the usage of belongings in the vehicle mall to promote used vehicles unless the enterprise was part of a new automobile dealership.

“It’s (a used vehicle lot) simply no longer something we might want to see,” stated Maggie Tadlock, president of the Elk Grove Auto Mall Association…. Sales of used motors only is “totally one of a kind from our expectancies for the mall” and “defrays from what we are looking to do” at the auto mall.

Throughout the first decade of the twenty first century, a plethora of articles were written regarding “taxes, cities and dealerships.” See, as an example: San Francisco Business Times, November 23, 2003; The Palo Alto Weekly, June 2, 2004; Palo Alto Weekly, September 21, 2005; The Contra Costa Times, January 12, 2006; Los Gatos Weekly Times, March 29, 2006; Sacramento Bee, March 10, 2007; The Oakland Tribune, January 2, 2008; and Ward’s Dealer Business, April 1, 2009.

All of the above articles have the equal subject matters: (a) the amount of monies vehicle dealerships convey to towns; and (b) cities prohibiting dealership homes from being used for anything besides vehicle dealerships.

(b) State laws. On March 22, 2010 Donna Harris suggested that there are currently forty states wherein franchise regulation has been proposed in 2009 and 2010. Automotive News.

Even with the regulations many nation legal guidelines impose upon site manage, it’s far important to remember that it’s miles greater hard to undertaking website-manipulate if the provider has been compensated for it via the factory – and factories will typically nation that every one dealers are compensated. One commonplace claim of a quid pro quo is the granting of the Sales and Service Agreement to promote the factory’s logo of automobiles.

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The future vehicle, let’s imagine a 2025 model, can be a completely distinctive gadget to its modern Grandfather. They could be filled with computer systems and safety gadgets ensuring that not even a stunt driver can crash, and they’ll run on carbon dioxide and emit strawberry scented oxygen. Well, they might.

Predictions of destiny motors are usually wildly inaccurate; by now, we need to all have area programs to rival NASA primarily based out of our backyard. However, some of the auto-related slicing area era rising now may also properly make it into production models of the destiny. But how lots of this generation will be wanted or maybe wanted? Car design of the present is already inspired with the aid of politicians, bureaucrats, health and protection regulations, and emissions guidelines, and the stunning idea visible on the motor show emerges into the sector as a 1.Zero liter purchasing cart, however as a minimum, it’s legal.


I like the idea of gasoline-efficient hybrid cars and gas mobile motors emitting not anything but water. However, like most lovers, I also like effective loud convertibles with the ability to snap vertebrae at 10 paces. A realistic blend consequently is required, and this may be the task entrusted to vehicle designers and engineers of the future to make a politically accurate automobile that is also appropriate.

Another imminent problem facing designers of the future is arising with styling ideas that might be fresh and new. However, some of the latest ideas are truely placing no longer necessarily stunning within the classic feel of the phrase. But if there’s one issue the auto enterprise is ideal at, that is innovation, and I, for one, am confident that radical and intense ideas never earlier than imagined will keep seeming at motor shows around the world.

The computer era has already taken a company keeps the car, and the cutting-edge driver is less and much less answerable for the actions in their automobile, quickly crash sufferers will try and sue the electronics organizations for accidents they brought on due to the fact their pc gadget did not brake the car even though they were fast asleep on the wheel on a 3 lane dual carriageway. Until you have automation of every unmarried vehicle on every single road laptop driven automobiles are simply no longer viable. In my mind, there are just far too many on-the-avenue variables; with all of the logic in the global, you cannot beat a mind.

Now laptop assisted riding is already available in certain Mercedes fashions, which brake for you in case your no longer looking where you’re going, and you’re too near the car in front, but there’s nonetheless a driver on top of things of the automobile or is there. What if you desired to get in the direction of the car in the front for some motive, you had to get towards the auto? If you failed to get closer to the automobile, something horrible would show up to civilization. Where do you draw the road with vehicle automation?

In advanced cities of the future, CCTV might be so regular that seen crimes and automobile theft are all wiped out. However that also may not forestall the determined thief. GPS (Global Positioning System) units equipped as popular to all new automobiles will be capable of tracking any vehicle at any time anywhere, this era is already commonplace, but tremendous use is inevitable. In the United Kingdom, the government is already talking about becoming GPS to price motorists relying on what avenue they tour on and at what times to reduce spiraling congestion. This technology coupled with a stepped forward cell telephone, and Bluetooth community may be used to music and recover stolen automobiles.

When the automobile is observed to be stolen, a call can be made, which shuts down the engine of the auto. At the identical time, a call is sent out, which alerts the available nearby police through the usage of the GPS established in each the stolen car and the police car officers can track the auto despite the fact that they can not see it. The police will even have a great deal more insight into a automobiles document while out on patrol, the usage of the Bluetooth era a police vehicle can tail a car and receive records at the proprietor, the current driver and their driving records, and even discover current pinnacle pace and acceleration figures. Of course, who desires that you believe you studied you’ve got just had a fun little blast to your favorite bit of road you get pulled over five miles later, and the officer gives you a speeding price tag for something he did not see. But if this generation is obligatory, then what desire do you’ve got.

Access to destiny vehicles may be very different from the keys of nowadays, push button code access, and keycard systems. The key doesn’t even leave your pocket, already available, turns into the commonplace. You hear the time period keyless entry, but it nonetheless uses a faraway control attached to a key which is then used to begin the car. Biometrics that are to be had on a few pc systems and use fingerprinting as a password can be an effective alternative to the key, and you can even apply it for members of your circle of relatives finding out between getting entry to simplest for the children or get admission to and power features for people with licenses. However, I trust it will be some time before this is the only way of automobile access or startup, what if you are lending your car to a pal and also you cannot be present to permit start-up.

Multimedia structures will preserve to develop in cars till the factor wherein the “are we there, but” word develops into “can we stay right here.” Manufacturers are continuing to cram video displays increasingly into an increasing number of ingenious locations supplying a rolling cinematic Dolby 7.0 surround sound revel in. DVDs are going to move the manner of the VCR with hard disk recording of video being the dominant strength a lot as MP3s are killing off CDs. This MP4 technology will shop space inside the car and permit far extra footage to be stored onboard. Improvements in wireless Internet connections could mean that the larger roads can aid Internet successful automobiles and continuously tell the driver with up to date relevant avenue data.

A display inside the sprint can show live photos to show traffic reports and predict site visitors jams using the GPS systems in all automobiles to reveal areas where cars were stopped or are congested and then deliver trade routes. The sound systems of vehicles may even enhance and end up extra customized for the diverse passengers, with headphone sockets and more than one sound retailers, there might be 4 exclusive radio stations that may be played at once via the exclusive jacks, and a variety of MP3s that can be performed without delay.

Passenger protection is already a priority for modern-day day automobile manufacturers and this could handiest boom in importance into the future. The extensive use of airbags will increase, the facet effect protection airbags featured in a few fashions have proved to be extremely powerful in saving lives, extra research and better positioning will preserve to improve their overall performance and reliability.

Airbags at the moment can handiest be deployed once so in a multiple collision crashes their effectiveness is voided after the first impact, future airbag systems but might also take this into attention and contain more than one unmarried use airbags in one role or reusable airbags which may be inflated numerous times. Some manufacturers use a dynamic headrest in a few excessive-spec models, those move ahead during a collision to prevent the pinnacle snapping again quite to this point and lowering the danger of spinal injury (whiplash.

It has been discovered that a cars bumper and body peak is a very important thing on the subject of safety at some point of a collision if an automobile has bumper which is too high it could override the bumper of the opposite vehicle and plow directly into the passenger compartment putting the occupants at intense risk. Accidents like this normally arise whilst a common length car collides with a truck or SUV, this mismatch may be avoided by having adjustable ride heights on the bigger cars, whilst they’re on a clean street decreasing the automobile to a suitable height could lessen the risks generally related to these styles of collision, as a by way of product this would additionally lessen the pinnacle heavy nature of vans and SUVs and rollover accidents might be avoided.

Sensors may be increasingly liable for predicting and safeguarding against avoidable accidents. Sensors will screen the street surface scanning for black ice and risky conditions. This information will then be exhibited to the driver. The vehicle may also take suitable steps to enhance traction accordingly reducing the threat of an accident. The information accumulated may also be relayed to a principal road tracking community that may tell different motorists of changing climate situations, in effect every vehicle could become a roving climate station.


Sensors will also monitor the role of the vehicle on the street and if the vehicle is located to be straying from the street or traffic lane an alarm would sound this selection is already determined on the Citroen C4 amongst others. Sensors may also monitor the driver’s well-being, imaging sensors would music eye motion and if the eyes close for a variety of seconds an alarm could sound to alert the driving force. Audi uses sensors on its new A6 which screen for wet conditions if determined the BOSCH brakes are carried out intermittently to wipe off the water and ensure true touch while they are needed, the stress applied on this manner is so slight the driving force does no longer notice.

Improved night vision and spatial focus would help cut down on night time crashes which account for 1/2 the road related fatalities every year even though most effective a quarter of all riding happens at night time. Cadillac already consists of infrared night time imaginative and prescient as a choice on some of its extra proper fashions, infrared vision does now not see the light it sees the warmth and the hotter an object is the extra it stand out on the display screen. The display screen is a heads-up display projected onto the windscreen in front of the drivers line of sight allowing the motive force to look the actual international and also the virtual projection. Honda has a comparable device with the brought capacity to identify items and pick out pedestrians and digitally highlight those that are likely to step into the motors route after emitting an audible caution.

New materials are continuously delivered into the automotive area, in 2005 Chrysler Daimler began the use of organic composite substances made from coconut, sisal, jute and different plants. This biological material is used totally on the interior of the automobile and reveals its manner into seat cushions, seat backs, underfloor frame panels and interior door panels. One of the advantages of the usage of those organic compounds is that they may be recycled and reused and the producing manner worried is far more environmentally pleasant than that of conventional artificial compounds. Ceramics first utilized in braking by using Porsche has become more and more popular, although still very highly-priced limiting them to exceptional automobiles.

The benefits of using ceramics are their excessive tolerance to extreme warmness making them suitable for high overall performance automobiles. The heavy use of the brakes is often needed. Their capability to perform beneath those extremes assist reduce the brake fade related to the exessive use and high temperatures. Materials first inclusive of carbon fibre and carbon kevlar first used on race automobiles and famed for their high electricity and light-weight homes have now filtered right down to the manufacturing car stage, mainly in excessive-give up motors but in due time those composites will begin to seem within the average car, cutting weight and growing gas financial system at the same time as keeping structural pressure.

In the future vehicle, designers will discover new issues and locate alternative influences for their designs. In an attempt to trap peoples’ eye, the designs will be more and more bold and brash, often sacrificing the classy stability of the design to be specific in an increasing number of ‘achieved earlier than’ market. This isn’t always to say all designs are going to be hideous, only a few. Another influence to exterior layout could be made by way of regulation as stricter pedestrian safety laws are enforced requiring the front ends of vehicles to be ‘softer’, this questioning has already been introduced on some models, overall even though it’s far hard to mission how this can ultimately have an effect on the face of automobile layout.

With the extended use of alternative fuel resources inclusive of the hydrogen gas cell and hydrogen combustion engine, vehicle bodies may also mirror their electricity’s inexperienced nature. However I accept as true with this to be a mistake. The Honda Insight Hybrid might have been greater of a achievement had it not been utterly repulsive, human beings were already wary of its electricity source and to then lead them to vomit in disgust at its styling is just no longer wise. Why do all of the green vehicles seem like a 60’s psychedelic nightmare, why can’t they just appear to be a decent concept car with an alternative engine. Things seem to be improving but and BMW’s H2R is an undeniably beautiful automobile if extremely impractical. And hybrid technology is locating its way into mainstream production cars as an optional strength source.


The interior of vehicles will also change, becoming greater user-friendly and personalized. Ergonomically positioned controls and lumbar aid seats with adjustable everything will come as well known to boom driving force and passenger consolation and reduce chronic pain and pain. Customisable and customized indoors area may also turn out to be suited functions at the future car. Just as you change cell telephone covers an entire sprint may be swapped to match your mood, in case your a bit larger than common why no longer healthy an XXL seat in two smooth steps, the possibilities will be infinite with a purpose to cater for a more and more demanding patron.

Alternative strength sources for automobiles are becoming ever greater famous. Government incentives will in the end pressure all but the extraordinary wealthy into environmentally friendly automobiles, no problem, with the aid of then gas mobile automobiles may be simply as speedy as their fossil gasoline opposite numbers however with none of the mess or stench. However, it can take a few convincing to get a ‘petrol head’ to place down his piston and pick out up a proton alternate membrane cathode, its simply not identical. Eventually commonplace traditional fuel cars will become classics and extremely fashionable via creditors, however not for a long long time.

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