There are several capability financing alternatives available to cash-strapped groups that want a healthy dose of operating capital. A financial institution loan or line of credit score is often the first alternative that owners think of – and for groups that qualify, this could be the fine option.
In the trendy unsure commercial enterprise, financial and regulatory surroundings, qualifying for a bank mortgage may be difficult – in particular for start-up businesses and those which have experienced any sort of economic issue. Sometimes, owners of organizations that don’t qualify for a financial institution loan decide that in search of venture capital or bringing on fairness investors are different feasible options.
But are they virtually? While there are some capability benefits to bringing assignment capital and so-known as “angel” buyers into your commercial enterprise, there are drawbacks as nicely. Unfortunately, owners once in a while don’t consider those drawbacks till the ink has dried on a contract with an assignment capitalist or angel investor – and it’s too past due to again out of the deal.
Different Types of Financing
One trouble with bringing in equity buyers to assist offer a working capital boost is that working capital and equity are virtually two specific kinds of financing.
Working capital – or the money this is used to pay business charges incurred at some stage in the time lag until cash from sales (or bills receivable) is accrued – is short-term in nature, so it needs to be financed thru a short-term financing tool. Equity, however, needs to typically be used to finance rapid increase, enterprise expansion, acquisitions or the acquisition of long-time period belongings, which can be described as property that is repaid over a couple of 12-month business cycle.
But the largest downside to bringing fairness traders into your commercial enterprise is a potential loss of control. When you sell equity (or stocks) in your business to undertaking capitalists or angels, you’re giving up a percent of possession on your enterprise, and you will be doing so at an inopportune time. With this dilution of ownership most customarily comes a lack of control over some or all the most important enterprise decisions that must be made.
Sometimes, proprietors are enticed to promote fairness by using the truth that there is little (if any) out-of-pocket cost. Unlike debt financing, you don’t generally pay interest with fairness financing. The equity investor gains its return thru the ownership stake won in your enterprise. But the lengthy-term “cost” of selling fairness is always much better than the fast-term price of debt, in terms of both actual coins fee in addition to tender charges like the lack of manipulating and stewardship of your corporation and the potential future fee of the ownership shares which are offered.
Alternative Financing Solutions
But what if your commercial enterprise wishes working capital and also you do not qualify for a financial institution loan or line of credit score? Alternative financing answers are often appropriate for injecting operating capital into groups in this case. Three of the most commonplace styles of alternative financing utilized by such businesses are:
1. Full-Service Factoring – Businesses promote splendid accounts receivable on an ongoing basis to a commercial finance (or factoring) employer at a discount. The factoring organization then manages the receivable till it is paid. Factoring is a properly-mounted and universal approach to temporary opportunity finance this is mainly properly-suited for rapidly developing agencies and people with purchaser concentrations.
2. Accounts Receivable (A/R) Financing – A/R financing is an ideal solution for groups that aren’t yet bankable however have a solid monetary situation and a greater numerous patron base. Here, the enterprise provides info on all debts receivable and pledges the one’s assets as collateral. The proceeds of those receivables are dispatched to a lockbox while the finance organization calculates a borrowing base to determine the amount the employer can borrow. When the borrower needs money, it makes an increase request and the finance company advances money the usage of a percent of the bills receivable.
3. Asset-Based Lending (ABL) – This is a credit score facility secured by means of all of a company’s assets, which may additionally include A/R, gadget, and stock. Unlike with factoring, the business keeps to manipulate and accumulate its own receivables and submits collateral reviews on an ongoing foundation to the finance business enterprise, if you want to review and periodically audit the reviews.
In addition to providing working capital and allowing owners to preserve enterprise control, alternative financing can also provide other blessings as nicely:
It’s easy to decide the exact fee of financing and gain a boom. Professional collateral control may be included relying on the facility type and the lender. Real-time, online interactive reporting, is often to be had. It might also provide the business with getting admission to more capital. It’s bendy – financing ebbs and flows with the business’ wishes. It’s vital to notice that there is some situations wherein fairness is a viable and appealing financing solution. This is specifically true in instances of enterprise growth and acquisition and new product launches – those are capital needs that aren’t commonly well desirable to debt financing. However, equity is not commonly the proper financing solution to resolve a running capital trouble or help plug a coins-waft gap.
A Precious Commodity
Remember that enterprise equity is a valuable commodity that needs to most effectively be taken into consideration underneath the right circumstances and at the proper time. When fairness financing is sought, ideally this should be carried out at a time when the organization has excellent growth prospects and massive coins need for this increase. Ideally, majority ownership (and as a result, absolute manipulate) need to stay with the organization founder(s).
Alternative financing answers like factoring, A/R financing, and ABL can offer the operating capital boost many cash-strapped groups that don’t qualify for bank financing want – without diluting ownership and in all likelihood giving up commercial enterprise control at an inopportune time for the proprietor. If and while those companies come to be bankable later, it’s frequently a smooth transition to a traditional bank line of credit. Your banker can be capable of referring you to an industrial finance organization that can provide the right kind of opportunity financing answer to your unique scenario.
Taking the time to apprehend all of the exceptional financing alternatives to be had on your enterprise, and the professionals and cons of every are the pleasant manners to make sure you choose the nice choice in your enterprise. The use of opportunity financing can help your company grow without diluting your ownership. After all, it is your business – should not you keep as plenty of it as feasible?
Police investment has risen via £4.Eight billion and 77 percent (39 consistent with a cent in actual phrases) due to the fact 1997. However, the times where forces have enjoyed such degrees of funding are over.
Chief Constables and senior control apprehend that the yearly cycle of seeking out efficiencies year-on-year isn’t sustainable, and could not address the cash shortfall in years to come. Facing slower funding growth and real cash deficits in their budgets, the Police Service ought to undertake progressive techniques which generate the productiveness and efficiency gains had to supply excessive great policing to the public.
The step-exchange in performance required to fulfill this project will handiest be accomplished if the police service fully embraces effective useful resource control and makes efficient and efficient use of its technology, partnerships and those.
The finance feature has a crucial function to play in addressing those challenges and assisting Forces’ targets economically and efficiently.
Police Forces have a tendency to nurture a divisional and departmental lifestyle rather than a corporate one, with individual procurement activities that do not exploit economies of scale. This is in part the result of over a decade of devolving capabilities from the middle to them.Divisions.
In order to reduce charges, improve efficiency and mitigate against the risk of “top-down” obligatory, centrally-pushed projects, Police Forces want to set up a corporate returned office and result in the behavioral alternative. This change should contain compliance with a corporate culture rather than a sequence of silos going for walks through the company.
Developing a Best in Class Finance Function
Traditionally finance capabilities within Police Forces have centered on transactional processing with the most effective restrained assist for control statistics and business choice assist. With a renewed focus on efficiencies, there’s now an urgent want for finance departments to convert as a way to upload extra fee to the force but with minimal costs.
1) Aligning to Force Strategy
As Police Forces need finance to the characteristic, it is vital that finance and operations are carefully aligned. This collaboration may be very effective and assist deliver enormous enhancements to a Force, but a good way to gain this model, there are many limitations to overcome. Finance Directors must look at whether their Force is ready for this collaboration, however greater importantly, they must recollect whether or not the Force itself can continue to exist without it.
Finance calls for a clean vision that centers around its role as a balanced commercial enterprise associate. However, to gain this imaginative and prescient a large effort is needed from the bottom as much as recognize the enormous complexity in underlying systems and strategies and to plot a manner ahead that could work for that precise employer.
The fulfillment of any change control software is depending on its execution. Change is difficult and high-priced to execute efficaciously, and often, Police Forces lack the applicable revel in to achieve such change. Although finance directors are required to preserve suitable expert qualifications (instead of being former police officers as became the case some years in the past) may have improved within the Public Sector with confined opportunities for getting to know from an interplay with pleasant in magnificence methodologies. In addition, cultural troubles round self-maintenance can gift barriers to alternate.
Whilst it is particularly easy to get the message of finance transformation across, securing commitment to embark on bold trade can be tough. Business cases frequently lack the high-quality required to pressure through exchange and even in which they are of wonderful fine senior police officers frequently lack the economic cognizance to consider them.
2) Supporting Force Decisions
Many Finance Directors are eager to broaden their financial capabilities. The venture they face is convincing the relaxation of the Force that the finance characteristic can add cost – by means of devoting greater time and effort to monetary evaluation and presenting senior control with the gear to apprehend the financial implications of essential strategic choices.
Maintaining Financial Controls and Managing Risk
Sarbanes Oxley, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), Basel II and Individual Capital Assessments (ICA) have all positioned monetary controls and reporting below the highlight inside the non-public sector. This, in turn, is increasing the spotlight on financial controls inside the pubic region.
A ‘Best in Class’ Police Force finance characteristic will now not simply have the minimal controls to fulfill the regulatory necessities but will evaluate how the law and regulations that the finance feature are required to conform with, may be leveraged to provide value to the corporation. Providing strategic statistics in order to enable the pressure to meet its goals is a key mission for the main finance characteristic.
3) Value to the Force
The force for development during the last decade or so has moved selection making to the Divisions and has caused a boom in prices within the finance characteristic. Through utilizing some of the projects in an application of transformation, a Force can leverage up to forty% of savings on the price of finance collectively with improving the responsiveness of finance teams and the excellent of monetary data. These projects consist of:
By centralizing the finance function, a Police Force can create centers of excellence wherein industry first-class practice can be advanced and shared. This will no longer best re-empower the department, growing greater independence and objectivity in assessing initiatives and overall performance, however also result in more regular control statistics and a higher diploma of control. A Police Force also can expand an enterprise companion organization to behave as strategic liaisons to departments and divisions. The commercial enterprise partners would, as an instance, endorse on how the departmental and divisional commanders can meet the budget in future months as opposed to merely advising that the budget has been overlooked for the preceding month.
With the mundane number crunching being performed in a shared provider middle, finance professionals will locate they now have time to act as commercial enterprise companions to divisions and departments and awareness on the strategic problems.
The cultural effect at the departments and divisional commanders must no longer be underestimated. Commanders might be worried that:
o Their budgets might be centralized o Workloads could growth o There may be constrained access to finance individuals o There will now not be on site aid
However, if the centralized shared service center is designed correctly not one of the above should practice. In reality from centralization below a high-quality practice model, leaders must accrue the following benefits:
o Strategic advice supplied by using commercial enterprise partners o Increased flexibility o Improved management statistics o Faster transactions o Reduced range of unresolved queries o Greater readability on carrier and cost of provision o Forum for finance to be strategically aligned with the desires of the Force
A Force that actions from a de-centralized to a centralized device must attempt to ensure that the finance feature does now not lose contact with the Chief Constable and Divisional Commanders. Forces want to have a sturdy business case for finance transformation blended with a governance shape that spans operational, tactical and strategic necessities. There is a risk that capability benefits of enforcing this kind of exchange won’t be found out if this system is not cautiously managed. Investment is needed to create a successful centralized finance feature. Typically the destiny capacity blessings of more visibility and manipulate, regular processes, standardized control records, economies of scale, lengthy-term fee savings and an empowered organization of proud finance professionals, need to outweigh the one’s initial prices.
To lessen the economic, operational and functionality risks, the finance capabilities can be completely outsourced or partially outsourced to third parties. This will offer assured value blessings and can provide the possibility to leverage relationships with providers that provide nice practice approaches.
Typically for Police Forces, the focal point of improvement has advanced a silo-based totally the way of life with disparate processes. As an end result, tremendous possibilities exist for standardization and simplification of tactics which give scalability, reduce guide attempt and supply business gain. From certainly rationalizing procedures, a force can typically accrue a 40% discount on the number of tactics. An instance of that is using digital bank statements instead of using the guide financial institution declaration for financial institution reconciliation and bills receivable techniques. This could keep extensive attempt this is worried in analyzing the statistics, shifting the facts onto the unique spreadsheet and inputting the facts into the monetary systems.
Organizations that own a silo working version have a tendency to have good sized inefficiencies and duplication in their approaches, as an example in HR and Payroll. This is basically due to the groups concerned meeting their very own desires however now not aligning to the corporate targets of an agency. Police Forces have a number of unbiased groups which might be reliant on one another for information with finance in departments, divisions, and headquarters sending and receiving records from each different in addition to from the relaxation of the Force. The silo version results in ineffective facts being acquired by using the groups that they ought to carry out additional work to acquire the records required.
Whilst the argument for improvement has been nicely made in the context of transferring selection making towards operational service delivery, the brought price in terms of assets, duplication and misaligned techniques has rarely featured inside the debate. In the contemporary monetary weather, those expenses need to be identified.
Within transactional strategies, a leading finance function will installation objectives for a group of workers individuals on a daily foundation. This target set is a detail of the metric based totally lifestyle that main finance features develop. If the precise metrics of productivity and fine are implemented and when those targets are challenging however now not impossible, this is verified to bring about improvements to productiveness and nice.
A ‘Best in Class’ finance function in Police Forces could have a service-centered subculture, with the primary goals of supplying a high stage of pleasure for its clients (departments, divisions, employees & suppliers). A ‘Best in Class’ finance function will measure patron satisfaction on a well-timed basis thru a metric based method. This might be blended with a group extensive awareness on system development, with process owners, so that it will now not necessarily be the crew leads, proudly owning force-extensive development to each of the finance tactics.
Organizational structures inside Police Forces are normally made from supervisors leading groups of 1 to 4 group participants. Through centralizing and consolidating the finance characteristic, a possibility exists to grow the span of manipulating to best exercise tiers of 6 to 8 team individuals to 1 team lead/supervisor. By adjusting the organizational shape and growing the span of control, Police Forces can accrue huge cashable gain from a reduction in the range of team leads and crew leads can accrue higher control enjoy from handling larger groups.
Technology Enabled Improvements
There are a full-size number of generation enhancements that a Police Force may want to put in force to assist develop a ‘Best in Class’ finance characteristic.
These consist of:
A) Scanning and workflow
Through adopting a scanning and workflow technique to update guide tactics, improved visibility, transparency and efficiencies can be reaped.
B) Call logging, monitoring, and workflow tool
Police Forces typically have a number of individuals responding to inner and dealer queries. These queries are neither logged nor tracked. The effect of this is twin:
o Queries consume sizeable attempt within a selected finance team. There is a high chance of duplicated attempt from the lack of logging of queries. For example, a question can be replied to for 30 minutes by using man or woman A in the finance crew. Due to this question now not being logged, if the person who raised the question called up again and spoke to an exclusive individual then only for one additional question, this could absorb to 20 minutes to ensure that the historical past changed into as it should be defined.
O Queries can have numerous interfaces with the business. An unresolved question may be responded in opposition to by way of up to four separate teams with the enormous delay in imparting a clear solution for the supplier.
The implementation of a name logging, tracking and workflow device to file, degree and near inner and supplier queries blended with the set up of a imperative queries crew, would considerably reduce the attempt involved in responding to queries within the finance departments and divisions, in addition to inside the real divisions and departments, and procurement.
C) Database answer
Throughout finance departments, there are a great variety of spreadsheets applied previously to input into the financial system. There is a bent to transfer statistics manually from one spreadsheet to every other to meet the desires of various groups.
Replacing the spreadsheets with a database answer might rationalize the wide variety of inputs and lead to effort financial savings for the front line Police Officers as well as Police Staff.
D) Customize reports
In acquiring control facts from the monetary systems, police staff run a sequence of stories, import these into excel, use lookups to healthy the statistics and implement pivots to illustrate the records as required. There is massive guide attempt this is involved in sporting out this painting. Through customizing reports the outputs from the financial device may be an installation to provide the statistics within the codecs required thru the press of a button. This might have the gain of reduced attempt and improved motivation for group contributors that previously done those mundane obligations.
In designing, purchasing and enforcing new technology permitting gear, a Police Force will face some of the demanding situations which include investment approval; IT capability; capability; and procurement.
These challenges can be mitigated via partnering with a 3rd party service organization with whom the funding can be shared, the abilities can be provided and the procurement cycle can be minimized.
It is clear that cultural, process and era exchange is required if police forces are to supply each sustainable efficiencies and high satisfactory offerings. In an environment in which for the primary time forces face actual cash deficits and face having to lessen police officer and help personnel numbers at the same time as keeping present-day performance stages, the modern finance transport models call for new wondering.
While there a number of barriers to be overcome in attaining a pleasant in elegance finance function, it might not be long before this sort of selection turns into mandatory. Those who are beforehand of the curve will inevitably locate themselves in a more potent function.
Rakesh Sangani is a Partner at Proservartner and focuses on lower back-office transformation inside Police, Health, Local Government and Professional Services
Scientific works inside the theories of budget and credit, in step with the specification of the research item, are characterized to be many-sided and plenty of-leveled.
The definition of totality of the low in cost family members formed within the procedure of formation, distribution and utilization of finances, as money assets is widely unfold. For instance, in “the overall theory of price range” there are definitions of price range:
1) “…Finances reflect reasonably-priced relations, formation of the funds of money assets, within the technique of distribution and redistribution of countrywide receipts consistent with the distribution and utilization”. This definition is given notably to the conditions of Capitalism, when coins-commodity members of the family gain widespread individual;
2) “Finances represent the formation of centralized advert decentralized money resources, inexpensive family members pretty with the distribution and usage, which serve for achievement of the state capabilities and responsibilities and additionally provision of the situations of the widened similarly manufacturing”. This definition is introduced without showing the environment of its action. We percentage partially such rationalization of finances and think expedient to make some specification.
First, price range triumph over the boundaries of distribution and redistribution provider of the country wide earnings, although it’s miles a simple basis of budget. Also, formation and usage of the depreciation fund which is the part of a financial domain, belongs no longer to the distribution and redistribution of the countrywide earnings (of newly shaped fee at some stage in a year), however to the distribution of already developed price.
This contemporary first seems to be part of cost of main business finances, later it’s far moved to the cost price of a equipped product (this is to the price too) and after its realization, and it’s far set the depression fund. Its supply is taken under consideration earlier than hand as a depression type within the consistence of the geared up products price price.
Second, predominant aim of finances is lots wider then “fulfillment of the kingdom capabilities and responsibilities and provision of situations for the widened similarly manufacturing”. Finances exist on the country stage and also on the manufactures and branches’ degree too, and in such situations, whilst the maximum a part of the manufactures aren’t nation.
V. M. Rodionova has a distinctive position about this subject: “real formation of the monetary resources begins on the degree of distribution, whilst the price is realized and urban reasonably priced forms of the realized price are separated from the consistence of the income”. V. M. Rodionova makes an accent of a budget, as dispensing members of the family, while D. S. Moliakov underlines business foundation of a price range. Though both of them supply quite substantiate discussion of budget, as a machine of formation, distribution and utilization of the budget of cash assets, that comes out of the following definition of the price range: “economic cash members of the family, which bureaucracy within the technique of distribution and redistribution of the partial cost of the national wealth and overall social product, is associated with the topics of the economic system and formation and utilization of the kingdom cash incomes and financial savings inside the widened in addition manufacturing, within the cloth stimulation of the people for delight of the society social and different requests”.
In the manuals of the political-economic system we meet with the subsequent definitions of finances: “Finances of the socialistic nation constitute economical (coins) relations, with the help of which, within the manner of planned distribution of the incomes and savings the finances of money sources of the nation and socialistic manufactures are shaped for making sure the increase of the production, growing the fabric and cultural level of the human beings and for gratifying other widespread society requests”. “The machine of creation and utilization of vital price range of cash sources for guarantying socialistic widened further production constitute precisely the price range of the socialistic society. And the totality of competitively priced relations arisen among state, manufactures and corporations, branches, regions and separate citizen according to the movement of cash budget make financial members of the family”. As we’ve seen, definitions of the budget made via financiers and political economists do now not differ greatly. In each mentioned position there are:
1) expression of essence and phenomenon inside the definition of the budget;
2) the definition of the price range, as the gadget of the creation and utilization of finances of coins resources on the level of phenomenon.
3) Distribution of finances as a social product and the fee of countrywide profits, the definition of the distributions planned individual, principal dreams of the economy and most economical members of the family, for servicing of which it’s far used.
If refuse the preposition “socialistic” inside the definition of finances, we may additionally say, that it nonetheless continues truth. We meet with such traditional definitions of finances, with out an adjective “socialistic”, in the modern cost-effective literature. We may additionally give such an elucidation: “finances represent coins sources of manufacturing and usage, additionally coins family members regarded inside the process of dispensing values of fashioned reasonable product and country wide wealth for formation and in addition production of the cash incomes and savings of the within your budget subjects and state, worthwhile of the people and delight of the social requests”. On this elucidation of finances like D. S. Moliakov and V. M. Rodionov’s definitions, following the conventional inheritance, we meet with the widening of the monetary basis. They subject “distribution and redistribution of the fee of created within your budget product, additionally the partial distribution of the fee of countrywide wealth”. This present day is very actual, incredibly to the process of privatization and the transition to privateness and is periodically utilized in exercise in exceptional countries, as an example, Great Britain and France.
“Finances – are coins sources, financial resources, their advent and motion, distribution and redistribution, utilization, additionally reasonable relations, which might be conditioned by means of intercalculations between the low-cost subjects, the motion of coins resources, cash flow and utilization”. “Finances are the gadget of low in cost members of the family, which are connected with the firm advent, distribution, and utilization of economic resources”.
We meet with certainly innovational definitions of finances in Z. Body and R. Merton’s foundation manuals. “Finance – it is the science about how the people lead spending `the deficit coins resources and incomes in the precise time frame. The economic decisions are characterised via the costs and earning that are 1) separated in time, and a pair of) most often, it’s miles not possible to take them under consideration in advance neither by way of individuals who get selections nor another man or woman” . “Financial principle consists of numbers of the conceptions… Which learns systematically the topics of distribution of the coins sources exceedingly to the time component; it also considers quantitative fashions, with the help of which the estimation, setting into exercise and cognizance of the opportunity variants of each financial selections take place” .
These primary conceptions and quantitative fashions are used at every degree of getting economic choices, but in the trendy definition of budget, we meet with the subsequent doctrine of the financial foundation: foremost function of the finances is inside the pleasure of the humans’ requests; the subjects of reasonable activities of any type (companies, additionally nation organs of every stage) are directed in the direction of pleasant this primary function.
For the desires of our monograph, it’s miles critical to examine well-known definitions approximately finances, credit and investment, to decide how and how much it is feasible to integrate the price range, investments, and credit into the only general part.
Some researcher aspect that credit is the consisting a part of the price range if it’s miles mentioned from the placement of essence and class. The other, extra numerous institution proves, that a cheap category of credit score exists parallel to the affordable class of price range, by using which it underlines impossibility of the credit’s existence within the consistence of budget.
N. K. Kuchukova underlined the independence of the class of credit score and notes that it’s far most effective its “characteristic function the grew to become motion of the fee, which is not related with the transmission of the mortgage possibilities together with the proprietors’ rights”.
N. D. Barkovski replies that functioning of money created a cheap foundation for apportioning price range and credit score as an unbiased class and gave rise to the credit score and economic members of the family. He noticed the Gnoseological roots of technology in cash and credit, as the technological know-how approximately price range has an enterprise with the studies of such in your price range family members, which lean upon cash waft and credit score. Let’s speak the maximum unfold definitions of credit score. In the cutting-edge courses, credit score appeared to be “luckier”, then budget. For example, we meet with the following definition of credit inside the finance-reasonably priced dictionary: “credit is the mortgage in the shape of cash and commodity with the situations of returning, normally, by using paying percentage. Credit represents a shape of motion of the mortgage capital and expresses low-cost relations between the creditor and borrower”.
This is the conventional definition of credit. In the sooner dictionary of the economic system, we read: “credit is the gadget of cost-effective relations, that is formed while the transmission of cash and material manner into the temporal utilization, probably beneath the conditions of returning and paying percent”. In the manual of the political-economic system posted under discount of V. A. Medvedev the following definition is given: “credit, as an economical category, expresses the created members of the family among the society, labour collective and employees at some point of formation and usage of the loan budget, beneath the terms of paying gift and returning, at some stage in transmission of assets for the temporal utilization and accumulation”.
Credit is mentioned inside the following manner in the sooner schooling-methodological manuals of political economy: “credit is the system of money relations, that is created in the system of the usage of and mobilization of temporarily free cash means of the kingdom price range, unions, manufactures, agencies and populace. Credit has a goal man or woman. It is used for imparting widened similarly manufacturing of the country and different wishes. Credit differs from finances with the aid of the returning person, while financing of manufactures and groups by means of the country is fulfilled with out this circumstance”.
We meet with the following definition if “the course of economy”: “credit is an economical class, which represents relations, at the same time as the separate industrial agencies or humans transmit money method to every-different for temporal utilization beneath the conditions of returning. Creation of credit score is conditioned by a historical system of gratifying the cost-efficient and cash family members, the shape of that is the money relation”.
Following scientists deliver slightly specific definitions of credit: “Credit – is a loan in the form of money or commodity, which is given to the borrower by a creditor under the conditions of returning and paying the share price via the borrower”. Credit is giving the temporally loose money resources or commodity as a debt for the described terms by the price of a fixed percent. Thus, a credit score is the mortgage inside the shape of money or commodity. In the technique of this loan’s movement, specific family members are fashioned among a creditor (the loan is given by way of a juridical of bodily person, who gives certain coins as a debt) and the debtor. Combining every definition named above, we come to an idea, that credit is giving cash capital of commodity as a debt, for sure terms and material provision beneath the charge of firm percent rate. It expresses precise reasonable members of the family between the individuals of the technique of capital formation. Necessity of the credit score relations is conditioned, from one facet, through amassing stable amount of briefly unfastened money sources, and from the second one facet, lifestyles of requests of them.
Though, at the equal time, we have to distinguish equivalent to ideas: mortgage and credit score. The loan is characterized via:
o Here, the dialogue may additionally comment on transmission of cash and also things shape one facet (loaner) to another (borrower): a)beneath the owning of the borrower and, on the identical time, b) below the situations of returning equal amount or same amount and high-quality of the matters;
o The loaning of money may additionally bear no interest;
o Any man or woman may additionally participate in it. With the difference with loan, credit, that is somehow a personal occasion of the mortgage, represents:
o One facet (loaner) gives to the second one (borrower) only cash, and _ for temporal usage;
o It won’t endure no hobby (if the mission would not foresee some thing);
o In it creditor is not any person, however a credit agency (at the first place, banks). So, a credit score is the financial institution credit score. To our mind, it isn’t always correct to apply “credit” and “mortgage” as the synonyms. Banking crediting is the union of relations between the bank (as a creditor) and its borrower. These relations touch upon:
a) Giving a sure amount of money to the borrower for particular purpose (although, we meet with the so-referred to as unfastened credits, goals, and gadgets of crediting are not appointed within the undertaking);
b) It’s opportune returning;
c) Getting percent charge from the borrower for using the assets underneath his/her disposal. The vital basis of the credit score essence and its essential detail is lifestyles of considering among the two facets (in Latin “credo”, from which comes the phrase “credit”, approach “trust”). From the location of stream of cash forms (in the abstraction, ancient manner of formation reasonable relations and social price range and banking structures expressed via them) comparing exceptional definitions of price range and credit score, the ambiguity conclusion seems: credit score is the private occasion of finances. And really, from the position of motion of the money paperwork, finances constitute the process of formation and utilization of the funds of coins method. Very frequently such movements are fulfilled without returning, but sometimes, it’s miles feasible to give loans from the budget for the funding initiatives of other needs. Also, while a manufacture or corporations use their cash finances and we mean the price range of business issue, such usage can be realized as in the manufacture or organisation (there is no challenge about returning or now not returning of the usage), so gratis underneath situations of returning. This brand new is referred to as commercial shape because of transmitting the resources to others, however even in this occasion, it is the detail of financial device of the manufacture and company.
From the point of cash approach movement, main man or woman of credit is the technique of formation and usage of the budget of coins way beneath the situations of returning and, most commonly, taking the price-percentage. If gating the credit score cost would not take place (even inside the super occasions), in line with the movement form, credit score becomes a private event of finances, as from the internet monetary budget (therefore from the kingdom budget) the loans which undergo no pursuits may be used. If gating credit value takes place, by the arrival form, credit is discussed to be a financial amendment.
From the historical factor of view, budget (specifically in the kind of the nation price range) and credit (starting with usury, later commercial and banking) were growing in another way for considering credit to be the part of budget. Though, from the genetic-historical point of view, preceding loaners, before giving mortgage, needed accumulating the permanent capital now not returning, that is the net financial foundation. The banks analogously wanted concentration of the critical personal capital for influxing the customers’ way and for getting higher percentage price under the conditions of returning. Herewith, precisely on the economic foundation, in the type of economic fund (which later in part turns into loan fund) part of the bank capital appears to be the reservation (insurance) a part of the fund, which with the aid of nature is financial and not mortgage. So however the vital distinctions between budget and credit score shape the genetic-historical factor of view, credit score appears to be shaped from price range and represent their modification.
From the important function of expressing most economical relations of budget and credit score, we meet with cardinal differences between these classes. Which typically expressed with the aid of the difference of the motion paperwork however they may be returnable or not. Finances express members of the family within the elements of distribution and redistribution of social product and part of the national wealth. Credit expresses distribution of the perfect value handiest in the segment of percentage given for mortgage, at the same time as consistent with the loan itself, a best a temporal distribution of money assets takes region. Herewith, there is a lot of commonplace among the budget and credit as from the critical point of view, so in step with the shape of motion. At the identical time, there is a considerable distinction between budget and credit score as within the essence, so inside the shape too. According to this, there must be a kind of typically not pricey category, with the intention to take into account price range and credit score as a total cohesion, and within the bounds of this class itself, the separation of the specific essence of the finances and credit might take vicinity.
Funding of the coins approach is commonplace to the researched comparatively cheap classes. It takes vicinity in any separate system of price range and credit, that have been touched upon at some stage in the analyses of defining finances and credit. Word combination “investment of the coins resources (fund formation)” displays and defines precisely essence and form of low-priced class of more well-known individual, those of budget and credit classes. Though within the in in your price range texts and practice, it’s far very uncomfortable to apply a termini, which consists of 3 words. Also, “unloading” with an statistics hardens greatly its influxing into the move even inside the conditions of its strict substantiation and thoroughness. In the discussing context we don’t forget:
1) extensive and narrow know-how of low in cost category of the budget;
2) discussing price range in slender information under fashionable conventional which means;
3) discussing price range, as the funding of the coins method, in huge knowledge, which worries finances – in slender that means and credit – in complete which means. Termini “funding” and its equivalent “fund formation” are used by us because the practical structuring of coins means, that is based totally on two poles – accumulation of cash resources (gathering) and its utilization for precise reason within the way of financing and credit. We have hooked up a new termini – “finance-funding sphere” (FIS). Analyses approximately interrelation of price range and credit score made by means of us provide us an opportunity of proving, that in the given termini, the word “economic” is used with the that means of investment coins sources, its purposeful structuring. In this system we keep in mind at the same time financial, credit score and investments’ least expensive categories.
Let’s sum up center consequences of discussing the new idea – “finance-funding sphere” and talk its funding consisting parts.
The concept “investments” became delivered into the native low cost technological know-how from the West. In the Soviet inexpensive science they for a long term used within the place “investments” the termini “capital placement”, which expressed using the economic elements in the sphere of actual industrial sports at some stage in realization of capital tasks. From one look, this termini in its idea is identical to the “investments”, consequently it is possible to use them as synonyms. Though the termini “investments” and “investing” have the gain in the direction of the termini “capital placement” from linguistic and philological factors of view, because they are expressed with one phrase. This isn’t handiest low in cost and relaxed in the technique of running with the termini “investment” itself, however also it offers an possibility of termini formation. More concretely: “funding method”, “investment area”, “finance-investment sphere” – most of these termini are plenty more applicable. Changing native low-budget termini with overseas ones is functional, if it in reality matters (through preserving parallel utilization of the native termini for the inheritance). Though we need to not exchange native reasonably-priced termini into foreign ones all collectively, when via ordinal conventional language clean to explain private and slim concrete strategies and elements get their own termini. The “movement” of these termini is accredited in the slim expert bounds, however their “spitting out” into the in your price range technology might also flip good value language into the tangled slang.
Let’s speak termini – “funding” and “capital placement’s” usage in the cost-efficient literature. Investments are the placement of funds into the primary and circulate capital for the motive of having income. “Investments in cloth property – are the placements of the budget into the mobile and actual estate (land, buildings, fixtures and so forth). Investments in economic assets are the placements of funds into the securities financial institution money owed and different monetary contraptions”.
We do not meet with the termini “investments” in the earlier least expensive dictionary, but we meet the blended termini “funding policy” – the union of the economic decisions, which guarantee essential directions of the capital investments, the activities in their awareness inside the determinant suburbs, on which the attaining of deliberate charges of improvement of the society manufacturing is depended, balancing and effectiveness, getting increasingly more production and income of the countrywide earnings for each lost Ruble”. For today, within the maximum actual definitions, the capital investments are bounded only through financial means, when now not most effective economic, however additionally the funding of natural, cloth-technical and informational sources takes location. Labour assets take an actual area inside the investment process. They themselves satisfy this or that funding technique.
A tremendous side of the mentioned definitions is that they connect funding policy and capital placements (investments):
– budget friendly improvement consistent with the important thing directions to the attention;
– presenting excessive costs of not pricey growth;
– elevating a cost-effective effectiveness, that is expressed:
a) by way of growing the throw off of the manufacturing and countrywide profits for every lost Ruble;
b) via pleasurable the branch structure of the investments;
c) by means of enhancing their technological shape;
d) with the aid of optimization of their in addition manufacturing shape.
Compared with such definition of the investments (capital placement) the definition of investments within the dictionary attaching the “Economics” seems to be unimproved: “investments – the costs of collecting manufacturing and industrial method and increasing material reserve”. In this definition contemporary charges (manufacturing expenses) are mixed with the investment (capital) cost. Also, not the investment costs however (though the investments are accompanied with the aid of the suitable fees) exactly advancing. It differs from the costs by means of that the means (manner) are placed via returning the advanced values, also, beneath the situations of growth, to which the idea-superior capital is corresponding. The advancing can be realized inside the money, natural-fabric and informational forms.
Except the termini “investments”, there are two extra termini related to the funding. They are shown below.
“Human capital funding” – any activity supplied for growing the employees labour productiveness (inside the way of developing their qualification and growing their skills); on the expenses of enhancing the people’ training, fitness and raising the mobility of the working forces”. It is very useful to apply the noted termini, although it needs one correction: the human capital investments do now not problem only workers, however additionally the servants, representatives of each sort of labour. “Investment commodity, capital goods – a capital.”
In the official manuals of the political economy of the reformation time, the capital investments are mentioned as “expenses for developing new foremost price range and widening, reconstruction and renewing the active ones”. In this definition, the investments (capital placements) throughout separation of the forms (sorts) of in addition manufacturing of the principle finances are bounded handiest through important finances (with out will increase of the move budget and insurance reserves):
a) developing new ones;
Also, the concept of the industrial gathering appears, at the charges of the widening of simple, flow funds and also coverage reserves takes location”.
You’ll meet below the definitions of investments from “the course of the economic system”: the investments are known as “placements of the fund into the basic capital (fundamental means of manufacturing), reserves, also different cost-effective objects and approaches, which request lengthy-termed influxing of fabric and cash way. “According to the department of capital into physical and cash forms, the investments too should be divided into cloth and cash investments”.
They apportion investment commodity, to which belong commercial and nonindustrial constructing items, automobiles purposed for converting or widened technical park and the furnishings, increasing reserves and others.
“They call the whole investments of production an investment product, which is directed closer to maintaining and growing the primary capital (primary approach) and reserve. Total investments consist of two elements. One of them is called the depreciation; it represents essential investment resources for repayment of renewal till the level of before business usage, wearing out and repairing of the fundamental method. Second consisting part of the whole investments is represented by using net investments – capital investments for the motive of increasing basic method”. Depreciation isn’t always a compensation useful resource of wearing the fundamental budget out, however it’s miles the practical monetary supply of such assets. Human capital investment is “a selected sort of investments, typically in education and health safety”.
“Real investments are the investments within the cost-effective branches and also, they’re forms of least expensive activities, which offer influxing the will increase of real capital, this is growing material values of the commercial means”. We can believe such definition with one specification that cloth and nonmaterial values too belong to the actual capital (wealth), therefore technology-getting to know experimental-construction consequences, various information, training of he employees and others. Such service as the company of the excitable games, also the service of redistribution social wealth from one personal individual to another (except charity).
“Financial investments constitute placement of budget into the stocks, obligations, promissory notes, other securities and units. Such investments, of route, do not deliver increases of the real material capital, but they help getting income, consequently on the costs of changing the direction of the securities in the time of hypothesis, or distinguishing the path in exclusive locations of promote and purchasing”. We percentage totally such definition, therefore it follows that monetary investments (if it isn’t observed by real investments as a end result) do no longer boom real cloth wealth and real nonmaterial wealth. According to this context, the expression under could be very essential: “we ought to distinguish financial investments, which constitute placement of the price range within the ways of promoting and buying the securities for the cause of having earnings and economic investments, which emerge as cash and actual, moved to real physical capital.”
In the “economical path” quoted before long and quick-termed investments are separated. Recognizing the lifestyles of the boundaries among them, the authors ascribe short-termed investments to “one month or more” investments. If we get such conditioned standards, that we can name the investments which triumph over the phrases of some months, lengthy-termed ones, which is very doubtful and we don’t consider it. A lengthy-termed person of the fund placement is a enormous function of the investments (quick-time period doesn’t combine with the idea of investments). Principally, it would be better to point out quick compensative, middle termed compensative and long-termed compensative investments:
– much less then 6 months – short compensative;
– from 6 months up to the 12 months and a 1/2 – center termed compensative;
– more then the 12 months and a 1/2 – lengthy termed compensative.
We stopped on the definition of the investments inside the capital work “cost-efficient path” for the special cause, as, in it, the author attempted to talk about the concept of investments systemically and quite absolutely, herewith the e-book is posted just now.
We’ll go back to the dialogue the definition economical class of “investments” in different courses inside the following chapter. The definitions given here are pretty enough for having a belief of the extent of lights up the given category within the not pricey literature. What conclusions may be made according to the definition of the mentioned within your means category inside the published works, except the made notions and specifications?
There is quite deeply, concretely and punctiliously described the concept of “investments”, special definitions inside the affordable literature; but mostly in each works about the investments discussed with the aid of us till now, there isn’t always opened the essence of investments as an economical category. In every monograph , even supposing it has a identify investment, as a cheap class , there is given only the definition, idea of investments. But, because the Academician Vasil Chantladze explains, “a concept is a discussion, which proves something about the distinguishing function of the researched object. A concept out of a good deal essential feature features represents best one, and important in it is simplest – definition”.
But the categories are a good deal wider; it’s miles “a key, the most fundamental idea of each technological know-how”. Economical categories theoretically represent real, objectively existed effective members of the family. A class is the definition of activities of existed characters, connections, relations of the objective world. Generally, any instructional manner is fulfilled via the types, which provide possibilities for dividing the strategies and events semantically, for expressing the definitions of a topic and recognize their unique peculiarities and low in cost family members of a cloth global. Our aim is exactly to substantiate investments – as a cost-effective class and also, as a monetary category within the slender knowledge.
Here we practice for another guide thesis made by means of the academician Vasil Chantladze: “each financial relation is a cheap one and every monetary class is and cost-effective one, however no longer each good value relation and low in cost class is the financial relation and financial class”. In the method of defining the investments, it’s far important to take in thoughts the edges of assets, costs and earning, because investment, from one facet, is the end result of the manufacture’s hobby, and, from every other one, – a part of profits, which, in this example, isn’t used for utilization. Another occasion: it is really helpful to talk about investments in two elements: as a category of reserve and flow, with a purpose to mirror exactly the connection between “placement of budget” and “investments”.
As we’ve referred to above, no longer long ago, in the famous Soviet literature the ideas of “the location of budget” and “investments” had been commonplace to be the synonyms and concerned to be funding of resources for further manufacturing of the main price range and formation of the turnover budget. We meet with such understanding of the concept of “funding” (here, they separate three forms of the investment costs: investments within the basic capital of investments, investments in the house building and investments in the reserves) in the contemporary reasonable guides and it’s miles often used on the macro degree throughout a statistical analyze of comparatively cheap methods. In this concrete occasion investment is the category of reserve.
Singapore sovereign wealth fund Temasek-owned Fullerton India Credit Company Ltd (FICCL) has raised Rs 500 crore through masala bonds to support business growth. This offering makes Fullerton the first foreign-owned company in India to issue rupee-denominated bonds overseas. Masala bonds are the financial instrument issued outside India but denominated in the rupee. Fullerton India will issue masala bonds of Rs 500 with a fixed annual coupon of 8.125 per cent and a tenor of 3 years and 1 month. Credit Suisse was the banker to the offering. Shantanu Mitra, CEO, and MD of Fullerton India, said this issuance enabled Fullerton India to tap and develop a new source of funding. The money will finance Fullerton India’s growth plans. The notes will be listed on the Singapore Stock Exchange. Masala bonds are attractive given the deep pool of liquidity available for Indian borrowers, said Rajiv Baruah, head of India fixed income and CEO of Credit Suisse AG, Mumbai. Arun Natarajan, head of strategy and business execution, FICCL, said the tenure of the bonds matched the maturity profile of asset portfolio. The finance company plans to raise more funds through masala bonds. Fullerton also plans to raise up to Rs 1,000 crore through debentures and subordinated debt from the domestic market. ICRA has assigned an “AA+” rating, with a stable outlook, to the NCDs and subordinated debt of FICCL. The rating assigned takes into account FICCL’s strong profitability indicators, supported by moderation in its cost of funds and improved operating efficiencies. The growth in loan book has been healthy at Rs 11,980 crore at end of June 2016, from Rs 8,669 crore as on March 2015. There is an expectation of sustained improvement in asset quality given FICCL’s increasing thrust towards secured lending. The ratings continue to take into account the comfortable capitalization levels, stable asset quality indicators and the company’s strong management team with vast experience in retail finance. The ratings draw comfort from the company’s strong parentage. FICCL is a step-down subsidiary of Temasek Holdings. It benefits from the parent’s strong brand franchise, managerial support and expected funding and capitalization support, should the need arise. The credit strengths are partly offset by the moderate, though improving, the scale of operations and increasing competition in the secured lending space that could potentially pose challenges. There is a higher share of unsecured lending businesses in the overall profitability of FICCL. But this portfolio has performed reasonably well through difficult macro conditions. FICCL has shifted its focus towards secured lending in retail mortgages, rural lending and small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) while moving away from low-income segment, a segment perceived to be more vulnerable to economic shocks Page Design Pro. The share of secured loans increased with the higher proportion of disbursements towards the retail mortgage, SME and mortgage lending. Their share in total asset portfolio rose to about 49 per cent as on March 2016, from 31 per cent as on March 2012. During the first quarter ended June 2016 (Q1FY2017), the company reported a net profit of Rs 74 crore on a total income base of Rs 635 crore. Its capital adequacy stood at 21.9 per cent (Tier I at 16.1 per cent) as on March 31, 201
Dewan Housing Finance Limited (DHFL), LIC Housing Finance, Manappuram Finance, L&T Finance Holdings, GIC Housing Finance and Indian Hume Pipe were among 37 stocks from the S&P BSE BSE500 and S&P BSE Smallcap index who hit their respective lifetime highs after the benchmark Sensex closed nearly 2% higher on Tuesday. Aarti Industries, Essel Propack, GHCL, Force Motors, Film Industries, Jubilant Life Sciences, Kajaria Ceramics, Lumax Industries, Motilal Oswal Financial Services and TVS Motor Company were among others that hit new highs today. The S&P BSE Sensex and the NIfty50 index gained 2% each, and closed at 28,051 and 8,678 levels, respectively. Financial shares including banks, non-banking financial companies (NBFC) and housing finance companies (HFC) were in focus, ended higher by up to 6% on the bourses.
Nifty Financial Services (up 2.8%), Nifty Private Bank (2.3%), Nifty Bank (2.2%) and Nifty PSU Bank (2%) gained in a range of 2% to 3%, as compared to 1.9% rise in the benchmark Nifty50 index
Global rating agency Moody’s on Tuesday said that the draft bill to establish a new regime for resolution of troubled banks in India is credit positive as it will help to enhance overall stability of the financial system. It is an important step to having a comprehensive framework in place for the resolution of financial firms. “Currently, the resolution of financial firms in India is based on minor parts of legislation enacted for other purposes,” said Srikanth Vadlamani, a Moody’s Vice-President and Senior Credit Officer. CLICK HERE TO READ FULL REPORT “The beginning of three-day GST council meet to finalize the tax rate triggered positivity, which in turn resulted in short covering across the board. Also, the recent Essar deal has raised hope among the bankers as a majority are struggling with non-performing assets (NPA) issue,” said Jayant Manglik, President, Retail Distribution, Religare Securities.
“Banking and financial stocks lifted the mood post the Essar Oil deal which eases some NPA worries. The low inflation and expectations of further easing by RBI have also changed the sentiment in the market,” said Vaibhav Agrawal (VP & Head of Research), Angel Broking. “The market earlier saw nervousness over the geopolitical worries after the surgical strikes happened however there is no escalation so this is also a rebound from the earlier decline. Overall we see a strong market going forward as festive demand remains solid,” he added. Indian Hume Pipe zoomed 20% to Rs 804 after the company said the board will meet on October 26, to consider the issue of bonus shares to existing shareholders. Meanwhile, as many as 342 stocks were locked in upper circuit filter on BSE, the exchange data shows. Zuari Agro Chemicals, Zuari Global, Hindustan Organic Chemicals, Nath Bio-Genes (India) and Mangalam Seeds were at 20% upper circuit on the BSE.
CHENNAI: Ujjivan Financial Services, which is one of the 10 entities to get small finance bank (SFB) from the RBI, on Thursday said it plans to use biometric enabled ATMs to serve unbanked and under-banked customers. Financial Software and Systems (FSS) will be providing its end-to-end “payments in a box” solution for Ujjivan. Apart from providing biometric authentication for the customer through fingerprint recognition from the Aadhaar database, the new ATMs will also be able to read EMV cards. “We will also support and assist customers who are first time users, by running financial literacy, LIVE demonstration and communication program demystifying ATM machines,” said the release.
Domestic reforms to cushion India from global shocks
Addressing the BRICS investment seminar here ahead of the 5-nation Summit beginning in Goa tomorrow, he said the government has put FDI on automatic route in almost 90 per cent of the areas that are eligible for foreign direct capital. “Over the last two-and-a-half years most of the sectors have been reviewed and we now have probably the most open FDI policy in the world with 90 per cent of FDI coming in through the automatic route,” he said. Stating that the ease of doing business has improved massively since the Modi government came to power, Jaitley said many sectors have been brought into the automatic route and now we don’t have any instance of cases pending indefinitely before the Foreign Investment Promotion Board. “We have learned that notwithstanding the fact that there is a contraction as far as global growth is concerned, at least by domestic reforms we can neutralize the impact of the ongoing global slowdown,” he said. On India’s global competitiveness ranking, which has improved to 39 this year, he said many policy changes in the recent past have added to the ease of doing business. Jaitley said various policy measures and “every significant decision of the government are aimed in one direction — that is to promote economic activities and make India more investment friendly”. “Our ranking both in the ease of doing business and also in global competitiveness index has moved up significantly in the last few years. And this has been aided by a large number of policy initiatives which have been taken by the government,” Jaitley said. Lauding the states for their competitive spirit in making themselves business-friendly, he said: “the other silver lining is the states have also become extremely competitive and more investment-friendly”. On the need for more cooperation between the BRICS nations (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa), he noted that even though it has improved in the past there is still room for more periodic meetings to expand the areas of cooperation within the five-nation bloc. “We now have a BRICS institution in the form of the New Development Bank and in a remarkably short period of time it has initiated its own projects which it is funding. A contingency reserves arrangement is in place now and there is going to be increased cooperation in the area of customs and taxation,” Jaitley said. He also said the grouping has on its agenda many more proposals such as a rating agency and a research institution. The BRICS nations also are facing many challenges, he said, adding that together they represent over 40 per cent of the global population, a large portion of global GDP and a significant part of FDI flows from each other.
MUMBAI: Employers across the globe are facing the acutest talent shortage since the recession, says a survey by HR consulting firm, ManpowerGroup. Of the over 42,000 employers surveyed globally, 40% are experiencing difficulties filling roles; the highest level since 2007, according to the Talent Shortage Survey. 48% of India employers report difficulties filling job vacancies due to talent shortages. As skills need change rapidly, employers are looking inside their organizations for solutions, with 36% of Indian employers choosing to develop and train their own people. In the IT sector, businesses are reporting the most marked talent shortage in a number of years. Lack of soft skills (36%) and looking for more pay that what is offered (34%), are the top reasons that employers in India are not able to fill the positions, says a statement from ManpowerGroup. AG Rao, group managing director of ManPowerGroup India said: “The demand index for IT and accounting professionals have been on a continuous rise. Focus on technology up-gradation and better financial access will drive the sectors growth in the coming months. Further, in an attempt to provide financial services into rural areas as an initiative by the government, and Reserve Bank, the demand is projected to grow across core and support functions. While banks struggle to keep up with increasing demand and traditional non-banking finance companies (NBFCs) are still in the process to learn the ways of the online business, in tech startups are one of the major breakouts today, and this could potentially define the shape of the financial services industry”.
NEW DELHI: Questioning the methodology adopted by Moody’s, Finance Ministry on Thursday said the global agency has ignored reforms initiated by the government and it should not wait “till infinity” for them to take root before upgrading the country’s sovereign rating. “Our concern was mainly about the methodology of the whole process… Of course, the rating agencies are free to arrive at their own conclusion…,” economic affairs secretary Shaktikanta Das said. “I thought the due process has to be followed and you cannot jump the gun,” he said alluding to Moody’s making certain comments in public a day before having met the Finance Ministry. Calling the reform process slow and gradual with muted private investment and bad loans posing a challenge, Moody’s said on Tuesday it could upgrade India’s rating in 1-2 years if it is convinced that reforms are “tangible”. India’s sovereign rating by Moody’s stands at ‘Baa3’, the lowest investment grade — just a notch above ‘junk’ status. Das added: “We found the methodology to be deficient. That is something we pointed out. So we expressed our serious concerns about the methodology that they are following. Then, there were other issues. We explained to them about the reforms gathering roots and developing sufficient depth.” During the meeting with the Finance Ministry on Wednesday, representatives from Moody’s are learned to have said that a rating upgrade could be a reality when the benefits of reforms could be felt on the ground and the country’s banking sector stabilizes. Das said: “The depth of the reforms in India cannot be doubted. It is a unidirectional process for the last several years, especially in the last two years. The pace of reforms and the pace at which reforms are undertaken by the government due weight has to be given to that. “You cannot say that I will give zero weight and I will wait till infinity to see that these reforms take roots…I don’t think…it should not be a kind of bottomless pit.” In April last year, Moody’s had changed India’s rating outlook to ‘positive’ from ‘stable’ citing reform momentum and had said that it could consider India for an upgrade in next 12-18 months. During the meeting, the ministry also impressed upon the global rating agency about the government’s resolve to contain fiscal deficit at 3.5 per cent of GDP in the current fiscal.
I was an Indian resident till 15th May of this year. Till the last year, I was filing my income tax returns in India. I have been working in the UAE from 16th May 2016 in a construction company and earning salary income. My wife and mother are in India and I transfer them money for their living expenses through by my NRE a/c or through saving a/c of my wife and mother. My query is, am I liable to pay any tax in India for the salary income I earn in the UAE or for the money that I transfer money to my wife and mother? Also, am I liable to file income tax returns in India from the fiscal year 2017 onwards? Kindly note that I do not earn another other income in India. – Ryan Shetty Assuming that you will spend less than 182 days in India during the financial year ended March 31, 2017, you will be treated as a non-resident for the financial year 2016-17 and your salary earned overseas will not be taxable in India. Just take care that you receive the salary from your employer in the UAE itself, either in cash or in a bank account in the UAE. You can then remit it to your own NRE account in India or directly to your wife’s or your mother’s accounts in India. You should never ask your employer to remit the money directly to your NRE account in India as that may render the salary taxable in India because it is “received in India”. You will not need to file tax returns in India for the financial year ending March 31, 2017, unless the income earned in India (including the income earned from April 1, 2016, until May 15, 2016) exceeds Rs 2.50 lakh.